Why hydrogen can’t save us

This Monday, April 5, 2022, the IPCCthe Intergovernmental Group of Experts on the Evolution of the heated published the third and final part of its sixth report dedicated to solutions that could help us decarbonize our economies. Among them, the use ofGénéralités
Symbole : H Numéro atomique :…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/3/8/8/38807f95a1_50010101_equinoxprom-eit-big.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-hydrogene-14495/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>hydrogen
(Htwo) says green – understand, a hydrogen produced by L’électrolyse se réalise dans une cuve contenant un ELECTROLYTE dans lequel sont plongées deux électrodes reliées aux bornes d’un générateur de courant continu.
On appelle ANODE l’électrode reliée à la borne…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4/5/4/4541c4b363_50034200_electro.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physique-electrolyse-339/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>electrolysis
from’renewable energy.

Thus, hydrogen could serve “to the storage of electrical energy in the framework of the massive deployment of renewable energy intermittent “ or even “trade electricity between different regions to overcome seasonal or generation capacity differences”. Hydrogen could also “be used instead of the Formé par la transformation d’organismes morts il y a des millions d’années, le gaz naturel se trouve dans divers réservoirs souterrains, parfois…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/6/a/e6adcecd84_50035381_plate-forme-exploitation-gaz-naturel-danielfoster437-cc-2.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/developpement-durable-gaz-naturel-6640/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>natural gas for maximum production, supply Les physiciens qualifient la chaleur d’énergie thermique. Dans le système international, elle se mesure donc en joules (J). La chaleur correspond plus précisément à un transfert…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7/3/5/735709801b_92578_chaleur.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physique-chaleur-15898/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>heat process for industrial needs or be used as Matière organique, matière azotée, etc.
Il existe différentes familles comme :

la matière organique, qui constitue les êtres vivants (animaux ou végétaux) ou…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/7/0/e70ccaaf4a_91935_matiere.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-matiere-15841/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>matter first in the production of various chemical products and hydrocarbons synthetics ». Finally, of course, ” the fuel cells hydrogen fuels could power the heavy transport sector (trucks, buses, ships and trains)”.

but a study published by the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) could question the idea. According to scientists from the universities of Cambridge and Reading and the national center for atmospheric science (NCAS), any hydrogen leak will affect the atmospheric composition, with implications for air quality.air – and will have an indirect warming effect on the climate, partially offsetting some of the expected benefits of reduction emissions from carbon dioxide (COtwo).

Hydrogen and its indirect effect on global warming

What the researchers highlight is, firstly, that an increase in the concentration of hydrogen in our atmosphere – more particularly in the troposphere, the layer closest to the ground – will decrease the availability of hydroxyl radicals (OH). The same ones that participate in the decomposition of methane (CH4), a powerful Pour appréhender le réchauffement climatique, il faut comprendre son lien avec le phénomène naturel de…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/b/9/f/b9f0872ae1_50084221_ges2011-poilaumenton-flickr-01.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/climatologie-gaz-effet-serre-5381/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>greenhouse gases. According to these works, the duration CH life4 in our atmosphere would increase in a year for each increase in concentration of 1 part per million (ppm) of hydrogen. And finally, even if we managed to reduce our methane emissionsits concentration in our atmosphere could continue to increase – in case the H leakstwo I would be completely out of control.

Other gas greenhouse effect that the researchers hoped might be affected by the presence of hydrogen in the atmosphere: theozone (EITHER3) tropospheric. sometimes referred to as “bad ozone”. Because it pollutes and heats. But here they point out that the benefits associated with reducing methane emissions, Intoxication au monoxyde de carbone
Le monoxyde de carbone (CO), produit lors d’une mauvaise combustion des combustibles organiques (bois, butane,…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/a/0/b/a0bc7dcd90_50034618_monoxyde-carbone.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/biologie-monoxyde-carbone-4011/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>carbon monoxide
(CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC) or oxides ofGénéralités
Symbole : N Numéro atomique : 7Électrons par niveau d’énergie : 2, 5Masse atomique : 14,007 uIsotopes…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/5/7/a/57a531d2d3_50012051_suprazote.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/tableau-periodique-elements-azote-13578/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>nitrogen
(NOx) resulting from adopting a hydrogen economy should balance things out. A slight increase in concentration on the one hand, versus a trend of decreasing concentrations on the other hand. However, uncertainty remains about the extent of the reduction in these emissions based on the technologies actually replaced by hydrogen.

An increase in the concentration of Htwo in our atmosphere it is also not expected to have a significant effect on stratospheric ozone. The one that, this time, protects us from radiation ultraviolet dangerous things that happen to us Le Soleil est l’étoile la plus proche de la Terre, dont elle est distante d’environ 150 millions de kilomètres. Le Soleil est situé à 8,5 kparsecs du centre de la Voie lactée. Dans la classification des étoiles, le soleil est une étoile de type G2.
La masse…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/d/9/1d9cd1d45f_50034577_eruption.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/univers-soleil-3727/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>Sun

On the other hand, more hydrogen in the atmosphere will cause the concentration of water steam (Htwo0) in the stratosphere. Water vapor, which, it should be remembered, is one of the main contributors to the greenhouse effect. If the concentration of Htwo increase by 1.5 ppm – the high leak scenario – the water vapor concentration could increase by more than 1 ppm.

The effects of hydrogen on temperatures.

In conclusion, the researchers point out that the adoption of hydrogen as an energy carrier could certainly reduce CO2 emissions.two and therefore provide significant climate benefits. But that, to maximize them, it would be necessary both to minimize leaks and to limit the emissions of other greenhouse gases like methane in particular.

According to calculations, an increase in hydrogen concentration -of the order of 1.5 ppm- “taken alone” would raise global temperature by 0.12°C, without taking into account the effects of reduced CO2 emissionstwo associate. If methane emissions do not decrease in parallel, the temperature will increase by 0.43°C. But if leaks, as well as methane emissions – and the other greenhouse gases mentioned above – are controlled, adopting a hydrogen economy will help reduce temperatures by 0.26°C.

Taking into account all this new data and including the indirect effects on greenhouse gases, the researchers finally show that the global warming potential (GWP) of hydrogen over 100 years is on the order of 11. Understand that it could be 11 times more harmful to the environment. climate than COtwo. Even if the researchers acknowledge that large uncertainties remain as to the extent of the hydrogen sink in the ground, they call for limiting hydrogen leakage to be a real priority.

Leak Tracking

To help with this, a another study also published by BEIS takes stock of the risks of leaks throughout the chain of production, transport, storage and use of hydrogen. She tells us that during electrolysis, almost 10% of the hydrogen is lost by « ventilation and purge ». But what « Génétique
La recombinaison est un échange d’information génétique (brin d’ADN) entre deux secteurs différents du génome. Un exemple fréquent se déroule lors de la méiose entre chromosomes…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/6/6/7/667747a5de_50034807_univers-dossier2-seven-portraits-nc-01.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physique-recombinaison-4797/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>recombination
of this hydrogen
could reduce losses to less than 1%.

The study also classifies the modes of hydrogen transport according to the losses they cause. Tank truck transportation of Htwo liquid seems to be the worst solution with more than 13% hydrogen lost. And we learned that almost 3% of hydrogen is still lost in fuel cells. But less than 1% at distribution stations.

Hydrogen leaks into atmosphere could ‘undermine climate benefits of decarbonisation’

It is the new Holy Grail of energy: hydrogen is the subject of all the major investment plans to supply transport, industry or even store electricity. Except that this gas, which is supposed to be green when produced with renewable energy, is not so green. , according to some scientists.

article of Celine Deluzarche published on 11/13/2021

to roll the Inventée en 1886 par Carl Benz
La toute première automobile : à vapeur 
La première ébauche d’un véhicule mobile a lieu en 1796 lorsque le Français Joseph Cugnot plaça une machine à…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/6/4/e646bd1b53_50037761_800px-1955-mercedes-benz-300sl-gullwing-coupe-34-right-01.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/maison/definitions/maison-automobile-11105/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>cars
and the trainssteal planes or power industries, green hydrogen -produced from renewable sources- appears today as the solution to decarbonization. Last year, the European Commission presented a grand “hydrogen plan”with the goal of producing 40 GW of “green” hydrogen by 2050. Germany has openly announced that it wants to become the world number one in green hydrogen, while France has provided seven billion euros to finance the development of this fuel. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), 17 states have already published a hydrogen plan and more than 20 are working on it. In total, hydrogen could represent 10% of the energy consumption by 2050, predicts the IEA.

Hydrogen is a powerful indirect greenhouse gas 200 times more powerful than carbon dioxide

But have we properly measured all the consequences of this mass production? ” Hydrogen is a potent short-lived indirect greenhouse gas 200 times more potent than carbon dioxide when released, kilogram per kilogram “, he explains to Euactiv Steven Hamburg, chief scientist of the American NGO Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). The latter, one of the main authors of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), confirms to Futura that hydrogen leaks could ” drastically reduce the climate benefit of switching fuels Des fossiles…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/9/1/19101d2e63_46125_def-fossile-nardino-flickr.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/paleontologie-fossile-1091/” data-more=”Lire la suite”>fossils if they are not minimized ».

How hydrogen worsens the greenhouse effect

Hydrogen interacts with other gases in the atmosphere in various ways, explains the scientist. For one thing, it prolongs the life of methane by delaying its removal. In fact, the reaction of methane with the OH radical of the air is the main mechanism of decomposition of methane (CH4 + OH → CH3 + H2O). However, hydrogen also reacts with this OH radical (H2 + OH → H2O + H). ” So more hydrogen in the air means less OH to react with the methane “, continues the scientist. In addition, this reaction also releases water vapor, which contributes to the increase in the greenhouse effect. Finally, hydrogen also leads to the formation tropospheric ozone, another very powerful greenhouse gas. ” Today, it is argued that switching to hydrogen would eliminate the climate impact of fossil fuelsbut when those possible leaks are taken into account, that is not the case. “, he warns.

One ton of hydrogen consumed = 1 to 6 tons of CO equivalenttwo published

According a European Commission document published in 2011, up to 10% of the hydrogen could “leak” during production, transport and storage, which would multiply current emissions by five. In fact, hydrogen has a high propensity to leak due to its low dough molecular weight and low density. According to Falko Ueckerdt of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, consuming one ton of hydrogen could release between 5 and 30 kilograms of this gas into the atmosphere, which, depending on warming, is 200 times more than COtwo would be equivalent to releasing 1 to 6 tons of CO equivalenttwo. We are far from green hydrogen!

Limit leaks

Other scientists interviewed by Euactiv however, he believes these fears are exaggerated. Since hydrogen is a highly flammable gas, protocols safety are stricter than for natural gas. The rest, “ as hydrogen is more expensive than natural gas, the prevention of leaks in infrastructures is promoted“, Tempers Gniewomir Flis, hydrogen expert within the German think tank Agora Energiewende. ” The problem is that detection thresholds today are too high. Therefore, it is impossible to know how much hydrogen is actually leaking into the atmosphere.», supports Ilisa Ocko, another climatologist from EDF. Therefore, it is high time to investigate the matter. ” Otherwise, a massive switch to hydrogen will have dire consequences on the fight against climate change», concludes Steven Hamburg.

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